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中国社会科学院新闻与传播研究所

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中国社会科学论坛“建设性新闻:理念与实践”发言摘要

作者: 发布时间:2019-11-13 09:50:00 来源:

融入建设理念 共筑美好生活

唐绪军 中国社会科学院新闻与传播研究所所长

随着互联网的广泛应用,职业记者的传统工作领域正在被蚕食。这事实上是人类社会在技术推动下螺旋式发展的必然结果。传统媒体时代,记者之所以拥有新闻采访报道的权利,是因为媒介资源的稀缺,社会公众不得不把自己的权利让渡给了媒体。但互联网的兴起和发展,又把传播权还给了公众,从而逼迫媒体不得不作出一些调整,以适应时代的需要。建设性新闻正是在这样的时代背景下应运而生的。它是变化带来的变化:新闻传播渠道的变化,倒逼新闻报道理念的变化;人人可以参与传播的现实,促使媒体新闻报道方式的变化;人们对美好生活的向往,推动媒体新闻报道内容的变化;技术赋能公众民主参与,导致媒体政治角色的变化;传播网络与社会网络日益重合,加速媒体社会角色的变化。

Constructive Journalism: What do we know about it, and where is it going?

Karen MCINTYRE Assistant Professor of Multimedia Journalism Richard T. Robertson School of Media and Culture Virginia Commonwealth University

Constructive journalism has meant different things to different people in different media systems. Similar journalistic genres that emphasize their dedication to social responsibility such as solutions journalism, peace journalism, positive journalism and more have been used sometimes interchangeably, sometimes distinctively. According to Dr. McIntyre’s work, constructive journalism is rigorous, compelling reporting that includes positive and solution-focused elements in order to empower audiences and present a fuller picture of truth, while upholding journalism’s core functions and ethics. Dr. McIntyre will begin her talk by discussing the conceptualization of constructive journalism, including how constructive journalism and related genres fit together. She will then share findings from her own and others’ research that has examined this style of reporting. This will include research on the theory behind constructive elements of reporting, the effects of specific constructive techniques and public perceptions of the concept. Dr. McIntyre will conclude by discussing the future of constructive journalism, including challenges facing the genre, such as its definition and applicability in countries with varying degrees of press freedom.

构建绿色舆论生态——建设新闻的苏州实践与探索

JBO电竞陆玉方 苏州广播电视总台台长

苏州广电总台以构建绿色舆论生态为出发点,运用建设新闻理念指导大内容生产,由负面、冲突报道的报道框架,转向“意见开放、共同面对、协商解决”的建设框架。其中要素有三:话题选择直面热点、观点表达开放包容、参与嘉宾权威专业。

The constructive turn in journalism education

Nico Drok Professor of Media & Civil society at Windesheim UAS

JBO电竞Professional journalism in the West has arrived at a crossroads: can it move to ‘digital’ and after that continue its path in the same direction, or is a turn into a new direction required? Is it enough to only reconsider the financial and technological means that journalism needs to do its job, or does it also call for rethinking the goals and values of journalism? Scholars and practitioners alike have raised important questions for 21st century journalism. How to deal with the growing number of news avoiders? How to better connect with the public? How to be of value in an environment where news is abundant and concentrated attention is scarce? How to develop a journalism that enables the public to come to grip with its problems? How to deal with important long-term issues in a way that offers the public new perspectives instead of more disillusion?

In the field of journalism studies new labels try to grasp the direction that journalism should take, such as: communitarian journalism, conversational journalism, engaged journalism, participatory journalism, solution-oriented journalism, conciliatory journalism, care journalism. All of these express the need for innovation of journalism’s culture in a more constructive direction. However, changing a professional culture is not easy. In the process of adopting a concept of innovation that includes redefining the roles and values of professional journalism, journalism education plays a pivotal role. It has to pave the way for a journalism that fits the characteristics of the network society; not only in terms of technology and economics, but also in terms of a more constructive professional culture. Is journalism education ready for this constructive turn? At the CASS Social Science Forum the outcomes of a large-scale survey among journalism teachers from 30 European countries about their views on these issues will be presented.

建设性新闻:历史溯源、理念演进与全球实践

JBO电竞史安斌 清华大学新闻与传播学院副院长,教育部青年长江学者特聘教授,博导

在民粹主义思潮与“后真相”交织的当下,新闻业与政界和公众日益紧张的关系引发学界与业界的关注。以批判揭丑,单纯追求“冲突性”为立足之本的新闻业实践越来越无法对社会发展和进步提供积极的价值,因此我们需要在社会思潮与媒介环境变迁的语境下重思新闻业的价值与发展路径。本文立足于“建设性新闻”这一理念,通过梳理其历史溯源、理念演进及其在世界各国的实践案例,分析这一理念如何重塑新闻业与社群、个体之间的关系。“建设性新闻” 作为一种强调问题解决导向、弘扬正向价值的新闻理论,为“后真相”时代的全球新闻业的角色重塑和价值重构绘制了新的路线图。

JBO电竞公共协商、建设性新闻学与社会共识

JBO电竞胡百精 中国人民大学新闻学院执行院长,公共传播研究所所长,教授、博导

JBO电竞作为多元主体在公共空间展开的社会交往和意见竞争过程,公共传播激发了两种主流的学术想象:基于技术民主、多元协商和话语权再分配,一种以开放、对话、参与为特征的新型社会结构及与之适配的国家和社会治理体系或将形成;鉴于传统权力的制约、意见竞争的不确定性和公共理性匮乏,公共传播常以对抗、疏离为终局,或陷入不以达成共识为目的的舆论僵局,故国家和社会治理不可避免遭遇现代化的一个魔咒——进步中的分化、离散。前一种想象带有强烈的现代性情绪,乐见变革和进步;后者则心怀泰勒意义上的“现代性隐忧”:过度多元主义导致严峻的承认与认同危机。

JBO电竞实际上,两种想象抱持同一关切:何以在互联网革命汹涌向前的时代语境下,为公共传播提供正当、合理的导向和出口?若以社会整合的眼光看,这一问题又可分解如次:何以平衡公共传播中自由与秩序的关系?何以将意见竞争由偏好的聚合转换为偏好的改变?何以培育公共理性、设计公共讨论程序,进而将公共传播嵌入自由与秩序、差异与认同动态平衡的国家和社会治理体系?

这就要发起一场主动的建设,给公共传播一个明确的导向和出口,激发其多元对话、凝聚共识之潜质,平抑其偏好聚合、泛滥失序之险患。从全球政治、社会思想的主流趋势和互联网的功能特质看,公共传播治理最为积极的方案,乃导向公共协商、通往协商民主。本文探讨了将从公共传向公共协商的必要性与可能性、从偏好聚合转向偏好改变的五个路径——社会资本、对话伦理、平等与胜任、公共性与公共理性、建设性新闻与解决方案,进而为在中国情境下开展“公共传播—公共协商—协商民主”的社会实验提供了初步的理论方案。

BETTER JOURNALISM THROUGH DIRECT CITIZEN INVOLVEMENT

JBO电竞Steve Gunn Professor Tsinghua University

The former editor of two U.S. newspapers will share examples on how involving citizens in the process of finding and providing news coverage can improve the quality of coverage and benefit the community. He will primarily focus on two examples. First, including members of the community on a newspaper's editorial board to assist in determining the editorial positions of the newspaper, Second, inviting the public to participate in a citizen science project to better understand tidal flooding due to climate change in a metropolitan area. That second event set a Guinness world record for "most contributions to an environmental survey." He will also touch on other examples.

从暖新闻到善传播,凤凰的建设性新闻实践

邹明 凤凰新媒体副总裁、凤凰网总编辑

1、现在传播领域有过度负面化的倾向。因此要加强善传播的建设性引导。

2、建设性新闻有几个分支:积极新闻、方案新闻、恢复性新闻、预期新闻以及和平新闻(由于后两种涉及具体领域,所以我们着重讲述前两方面的尝试。)

3、积极新闻,这类新闻虽然简单平凡但让人感到快乐,这就是凤凰一直以来的暖新闻品牌。

4、方案新闻,就是不仅仅提出令人焦虑的问题,而是提出应对方案。也就是说要从负面中发现正面价值和榜样。比如成都七中的实验学校食品事件,我们撰文进行了善传播的尝试。

JBO电竞5、恢复性新闻。就是在报道中唤醒积极情绪,从积极心理学的角度来看,如果人们感到更积极,充满能量,就更可能“接近”这个故事,并产生正向的行动。比如去年刷屏文章《这块屏幕可能改变命运》就暗含这样的积极情感。而凤凰专访章莹颖未婚夫,就也是从悲伤的故事出发,以同理心进行报道,唤起当事人正面的力量。

6、我们在暖新闻基础上的善传播的尝试,取得了非常激动人心的效果。

从当代西方新闻改革运动看职业观念转变——“建设性新闻”“方案新闻”“公共新闻”评析

JBO电竞蔡雯 中国人民大学新闻与社会发展研究中心主任,教授、博导

本世纪在欧美国家出现的“建设性新闻”(constructive journalism)、“方案新闻”(solution journalism,也有人译为“解困新闻”)是西方新闻界继上世纪末“公共新闻”之后的又一轮新闻改革运动。这两轮新闻改革的行动主体相仿,目标相近,策略和方法相似,体现出西方国家一部分新闻工作者的职业观念发生了转变。西方新闻界的反省与纠偏,是在人类社会面临各种危机,新闻业也面临危机的特殊历史阶段,努力重构新闻业价值的一种积极探索。

New business models through high-quality journalism, designed to inform and offer a new perspective: case histories across the world.

Silvio Malvolti Founder and President, Italian Constructive Media Association. Trainer for journalism courses, Italian Journalists Association

Journalism has deviated from its original mission, going after click-baiting headlines and advertising metrics to make editorial products economically sustainable, forcing them to provide more and more content of poorer quality, less original and faster to consume.

This is the great illness of today's mass media: to provide more and more news, little in-depth and therefore often far from the truth, the real goal of journalism, in favor of contents that simply capture attention, and that lead the reader to click on some advertising, which pays for the contents.

Our vision, when we started in 2001, was ambitious: to build a newspaper that defined a new model for media. The first challenge was to overcome a cultural problem: the expression "if it bleeds it leads" was widely held and it was not easy to convince people and media professionals that a new model based on “good news” could work. Furthermore, along the way we made some mistakes, discovering that what we were pursuing was just positive journalism, and did not always respond to the principles of constructive journalism. That's when we realized that something needed to be changed.

We will share our experience and researches on new disruptive business models and some successful case histories across the world that run high-quality contents thanks to the new approaches of constructive and solutions journalism, allowing economic sustainability of editorial products. As a result of our studies, leave old business models adopting new ones will be the challenge for publishers to survive in the years to come.

“建设性新闻”中国化思考

JBO电竞周毅然 中国广播电影电视社会组织联合会副秘书长、学术委员会副主任

外来理论只有本土化并掌握群众,才能产生强大的力量。源自欧美的“建设性新闻”理论,近年来被引入中国,同样存在一个中国化、本土化的问题。本文探讨“建设性新闻”中国化的理论基础、实践基础和实现路经。其理论基础可以从哲学层次、新闻学层次、文化背景三个方面来解析;实践基础可以从中国丰富多彩的新闻报道实践来讨论;实现路径则可以从“产学研”三方面来分析。

从抽象掉各种具象的哲学层面来看,人类社会的全部理论研究和实践活动,都是为了社会进步和发展,使未来更加美好;长期以来,中国新闻舆论工作坚持正确导向,坚持群众观点,团结稳定鼓劲、正面宣传为主,形成了既具普遍性又有特殊性的新闻理论与实践;中国文化历来以“和”为美、以“和”为贵,又具有强大的包容涵化力量。这些都为“建设性新闻”的中国化提供了深厚的理论和实践基础。

“建设性新闻”中国化的实现路径可以简洁地概括为“产学研”相结合。首先要结合中国实际进行理论研究,构建中国“建设性新闻”理论体系,并将研究成果运用于新闻专业教学和继续教育培训,同时落实在“产”即新闻报道之中。

JBO电竞建设性新闻——媒体发展的策略选择 中国青年报的探索实践

吴湘韩 中国青年报社党委委员、编委、全媒体协调中心主任

本文结合中国青年报获中国新闻奖一等奖、中国新闻名专栏、舆论监督栏目《今日出击》及传播正能量全媒体报道《暖闻周刊》的新闻实践,探讨了建设性新闻的路径选择和必须坚持的基本原则:报道动机善意,帮忙不添乱;报道目的是推动具体问题解决或制度完善修正,从而推动社会进步;报道时机选择、分寸把握得当,不用全称判断,不作以偏盖全的推断,注重人文关怀;报道的效果积极正面,促进问题解决或缓和矛盾,达到社会和谐和善治。中国青年报几年的实践表明,建设性新闻拓展了报道和媒体发展的空间,提高了传播效果,有效提升了中国青年报的引导力、传播力、公信力、影响力、塑造力、服务力。

从“离线世界”到“在线世界”:新关系视野中的建设性新闻

殷乐 中国社会科学院新闻与传播研究所媒介研究室主任,研究员

从2014年开始,我们追踪了全球的建设性新闻及其相关概念潮流,追溯了理念的发展,分析了数十个国家的不同案例,同时也对中国民生新闻、建设性新闻的发展状况情况做了梳理和思考。本报告围绕三个关键词“脉络、重塑与汇流”分享对三个问题的思考,一是建设性新闻在全球的发展状况如何,二是从新关系视野看为什么在今天出现全球范围大规模的建设性新闻的潮流?三是中国的建设性新闻实践如何?这也是基于我们对于媒介、技术和用户的长期追踪,以及对全球建设性新闻及其相关理念和实践的持续跟踪与观察来做的一个阶段性报告。

Seeking solutions from science: some lessons for constructive journalism practitioners

Associate Professor An Nguyen, Bournemouth University, UK

JBO电竞CASS Social Science Forum on Constructive Journalism: Theory and Practice

Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, November 9-10, 2019

As constructive journalism shifts the focus from what is the problem to what can be done, it will undoubtedly need to seek more ideas, perspectives and answers from both natural and social sciences. Yet, integrating scientific evidence and perspectives into the news is historically not a strong part of journalism, due in part to many journalistic misunderstandings about science and its authority. With illustrative cases and examples from both developing and developed nations (including China), this paper will identify key areas where such misunderstandings should and could be mitigated for the sake of a strong knowledge-based and solution-focused journalism.

First, although science is regarded as the most rigorous form of knowledge about nature and society, it is critically important for journalists to start on the premise that scientific research must be treated with the same sort of scepticism that they exercise in news reporting about other subjects. Not all scientific knowledge is produced up to the normative standards of science and scientists are not free from human errors, non-science interests and other values. As such, instead of their usual unconditional acceptance of scientific materials that come their way, journalists must establish the authority, quality and transparency of such materials first. I will outline common factors beneath the surface of research findings and conclusions that need to be thoroughly verified and examined – such as authors’ motives, funders, peerreviewing status, scientific values and so on – before journalists decide whether to integrate them in their stories.

JBO电竞Second, even when the science at stake has been established as trustworthy, it is imperative for journalists to report it with caution. For one thing, as scientific truth is based on an iterative process that requires repeated research attempts over time and space, there is a need to avoid overstating the outcome of any single study – as has been seen in the familiar news headlines of “miracle cures”, “ground-breaking discoveries” and so on. Such trivialisation and sensantionalisation of science can attract audiences into the story but can create false hopes or fears and at times can lead many to act wrongly and excessively in the belief in science. For another, while science is a powerful form of knowledge that holds the answer to many problems of the world, it is important to recognise that science exists along other ways of knowing – such as popular knowledge, religious beliefs or personal biases – that could exercise more direct influences on public understanding and behaviours. As such, in order for science-based solutions to engage lay publics and to convince them to take actions for salient problems of their communities, they need to be reported in the news not as an absolute authority from the above but as something that works in tandem with their sociocultural and economic circumstances.

从希望哲学的视角透视建设性新闻

JBO电竞吴飞 浙江大学公共外交与战略传播研究中心主任,教授、博导

人是观念的动物,人属的世界不只是自然的进化,也是人与自然共同的进化。这个世界充满了自然的逻辑,也充满主体性的创造逻辑。但人的观念性的创造来自于人的所感、所思,源于人的反思性。因此人所看之世界,并非静态无为之呈现,而作为人的反思性的物料而积极作为。建设性新闻,就是这种物料。这一物料之再发现,是基于人类对传统新闻物料产制之不满。因为人对世界创造,不能仅止于对消极物料的扬弃,而应该提供再生之希望。

A case study in worldwide best practices in constructive journalism: C6overage of global climate change

Richard Dunham Co-director, Global Business Journalism Program, Tsinghua University

Across the world, media professionals are informing the public of the dangers of global warming and increasingly severe weather and working together to share possible solutions. Although our media systems differ from country to country, climate change is a challenge that transcends geographical boundaries and political differences. Reporters around the world are trying to be constructive citizens in a cross-border campaign of education leading to positive action in local communities, nationally and globally. This is an example of constructive journalism: producing stories that help society, cross cultural and national boundaries, and unite peoples. I will provide a case study in worldwide best practices in covering this vital topic, showing examples from various nations. Climate change is both a local and a global issue, and cross-border media cooperation provides us with constructive examples of ways in which we all can educate the public more effectively about our most pressing environmental challenges.

用媒体效果理论审视建设性新闻

李喜根 上海大学新闻传播学院特聘教授;原香港城市大学媒体与传播系教授、系主任

媒体效果理论阐释媒体信息带来的观念、态度和行为的变化。媒体效果实现的前提是媒体信息接触,即人们在使用媒体过程中接触到相关信息。建设性新闻聚焦于社会问题的解决,强调在报道社会问题时,致力于寻求并建立一套可以付诸行动的解决方案,从而让新闻报道参与社会治理。新闻报道参与社会治理的前提是受众信息接触。按照媒体效果理论,建设性新闻的传播要回答一系列有关媒体效果的问题。例如对于受众而言,建设性新闻能满足何种需求?关注与接触新闻的理由?产生影响的时间效应,受众对建设性新闻如何感知等。本发言在提出并阐释与建设性新闻传播有关的媒体效果理论的同时,讨论了建设性新闻面临的与传播效果有关的问题,以推动有关建设性新闻的深入思考与科学研究。

Newspaper History in Japan: The Analogy of Constructive Journalism

Yoshinori Kawasaki Professor Department of Media, Journalism and Communications, Faculty of Social Studies, Doshisha University

JBO电竞The purpose of this paper is to clarify the theoretical position of Constructive Journalism by examining Newspaper History in Japan. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Japanese journalism changed its function from political debate to news coverage. At first, the political debate included constructive proposals and policies for solving social problems and was close to the idea of Constructive Journalism and Solutions Journalism. Eventually, the place of political debate moved from the media to the Diet. As newspaper companies became more commercialized, the focus shifted to the reporting of facts rather than political debate.

When the Meiji Restoration took place in the latter half of the 19th century, politics was practised by some privileged classes only, and there was no institution for the election of national representatives to discuss policies. Therefore, the policy was raised in the newspaper, and a constructive opinion, that is, political debate, was published actively to solve social problems. Big out-of-power politicians formed political parties and used the media to announce their own policies. The proposals for improving the society were published in a newspaper and there was direct pressure on the government.

JBO电竞Journalists entered national politics as members of the House of Representatives when the National Diet was established in 1890. Thus, with the initiation of parliamentary politics, constructive proposals were debated in the Diet. Meanwhile, the role of journalists also changed. Journalists had to be independent from the political party and had to conduct their speeches and reports from their own perspective. Readers began to demand for news on actual events in the world, rather than for the constructive opinions of journalists. The newspapers shifted their focus to reporting facts rather than having a political debate.

建设性新闻“崛起”的内在逻辑与现实困境

JBO电竞漆亚林 中国社会科学院大学媒体学院执行院长、教授,上海大学新闻传播学院博士生导师(兼)

政治迭代与技术驱动导致了“后真相”的弥漫,承担问题解决使命的建设性新闻“呼之欲出”。新闻理论与实践的历史发展与现实需要是建设性新闻“崛起”的内在逻辑。作为新闻理念的建设性新闻,在新闻的基因里以正向的功能与价值诉求得以传承;作为新闻报道样式或者语态的建设性新闻,在新闻表达革命中不断演变、沉浮;作为一种新闻实践活动的建设性新闻,徘徊在“冲突性”与“建设性”的十字街头;作为一种辞屏的新闻形式,建设性新闻正在“崛起”。建设性新闻的发展还面临着诸多困境:新闻质的规定性与意义导向调适机制的缺失为建设性新闻发展埋下隐患;多元思潮的激荡与民粹主义的高涨为建设性新闻蒙上明辨是非的眼睛;专业记者的离散与公民记者的涌入消减了建设性新闻的主体张力;工具理性与价值理性的失衡对建设性新闻建构带来巨大挑战,等等。

用“媒体+法治”之思维,推动社会问题解决——看苏州在“建设性新闻”上的探索与实践

张利荣 苏州广电总台看苏州一槌工作室负责人

建设性新闻其实是新闻传播格局变化倒逼新闻报道理念和实践的创新产物。它让我们看到的不再只是冲突与负面,而是充满解决之道与希望。2018年以来,苏州广电看苏州新闻客户端肩负“建设性新闻”探路先锋的职责,大胆创新机制,革新采编流程,组建专门团队,以典型为突破,以推动社会问题解决为终极目标,努力探索“建设性新闻”理念在传统传播格局中的应用模式。

到目前为止,看苏州新闻客户端在“建设性新闻”上已收获“上海迪士尼案”、“苏大女生状告轨交案”、“中国知网案”、“万科物业被罚30万事件”等一批在全国极具影响的典型案例。不仅成功推动了社会问题的解决,而且积累了宝贵的报道经验,为“建设性新闻”报道模式的全国推广打下坚实基础。

学术话语建构:中国对非传播的建构性新闻

张艳秋 中国传媒大学 非洲传媒研究中心主任,教授

在国际传播学界,作者近年来提出以“建构性新闻”(Constructive Journalism)来阐述中国对外传播,开展了相应的实证研究并在国际SSCI 期刊发表系列论文。作者提出,在国际传播中,以建构性新闻作为中国对非传播研究及实践的突破口,角度新锐,意义深远。这不仅有利于规避和消解西方国际新闻实践长期以冲突性及负面报道对发展中国家带来的偏见及刻板印象,还可以将国际新闻传播实践带入一个目的性明确、操作性及导向性强的新闻叙事范式。

JBO电竞以“建构性新闻”为理念来重新阐述中国媒体的国际传播,有利于摘去我们被冠以的"积极报道"的简单化标签的帽子,通过创新中国学术话语来打破西方传统新闻学的主导格局,引导国际学术话语走向,在价值取向等维度再次定义和开拓中国国际传播实践;同时,建构性新闻的提出,对阐述近年来中国国内新闻实践对中国社会经济发展的积极价值,具有开拓性意义;此外,该理念对非洲本土媒体及新闻传媒教育融入新的理念从而反思西方新闻价值观具有建设和启发意义,对推动发展传播实践具有可操作性。

技术理性演进中新闻理论的价值追求

陈龙 苏州大学传媒学院执行院长,教授、博导

JBO电竞吉登斯认为,晚期现代性最大的变化在于,“在西方国家,不仅公共制度而且日常生活都在脱离传统的掌控,而世界上其他一些仍然维持传统的社会也正在变得非传统化”。随着媒介技术不断变革,技术在社会发展中扮演着越来越重要的角色,技术理性正成为统辖整个社会的隐形力量。我们的生活世界正在不断被媒介技术所重绘,大数据、云计算、物联网、人工智能等新技术在消费主义助推下,正催生人类发展史上的第四次产业革命。移动互联的智能传播社会是基于互联网海量的‘大数据’和每时每刻与现实世界的信息交互,在这个背景下,关于新闻学的传统理念正遭受着挑战。AI、5G等构成的智能化、场景创造、可穿戴设备、沉浸式传播,万物皆媒格局改写传播格局,自然也改写新闻理论。新闻真实性、新闻价值、社会责任等理论在数字化传播时代面临全面改写。媒介、传播者、渠道、效果这些传播学体系的内容,需要重新调整。在技术理性盛行的时代,在一个以5G、AI构成的新型“物”的体系中,最容易迷失的是人的主体性。因此,找回传播主体是当下最重要的工作。这需要厘清现代性进程中繁花乱眼的中的主线。加强新闻学理论体系建设的重点应放在人文教育,以重塑社会伦理。新型传播形态的现代性危机,正是价值理性缺失,以“人”——传播者为核心来构建,人文精神是新型传播形态中统合一切的重要价值。